As an economist, Wadan Narsey has a good grasp on the centrality of journalism in a mediated society, if not on the exact processes by which its influence is exercised over the masses. Those processes, after all, are murky at best. They have been the subject of decades of research by mostly American scholars, who have enjoyed only limited success in revealing their exact workings. Much can be inferred through social scientific research, but not much can be proven. After years of studying such things, however, some truths become evident. Owners do not exercise complete control over either journalists or the published product, as Narsey seems to think. Try as they might, it should be added. Neither are journalists totally helpless, as he assumes in all but absolving them in the finger-pointing currently under way in assigning blame for the mess that
’s news media have become. Fiji
Some critics are targeting the hapless journalists, who surely are minor cogs in the media machine. The reality is that journalists are totally under the control of editors and publishers, who in turn are ultimately controlled by the media owners.
That is exactly opposite to the contention of some conservative scholars that owners have little control over the news, which is instead produced by journalists, who tend to be more liberal. One Canadian study by a pair of political scientists actually found that owners had no control over what was reported, which was instead under the complete control of reporters.
Owners do not provide the labour for the product, therefore the product does not necessarily reflect the owners’ values. Instead, because journalism is in essence a human endeavour, it must reflect the values and political orientations of those who do it.
That laughable contention ignores the fact that what reporters write often never sees the light of day, as stories can be easily rewritten or even “killed” by editors, who are appointed by publishers and ultimately owners. Journalists certainly have some control over what news gets out, but whether they have more control than editors and their bosses is questionable. The upshot of more than a half century of research on this topic is that what appears in the news is usually the result of a power struggle between editors and reporters. Editors tend to be older, more experienced, and more career-oriented. They are appointed by owners who tend to be more conservative than reporters, who have been repeatedly shown to be broadly liberal. Neither is all-powerful in the news production process.
Sociologist Warren Breed, a former journalist, well understood that every newsroom has its unwritten rules descended from on high in the corporate offices. His classic 1955 article “Social Control in the Newsroom” found that reporters are socialised into writing what editors and owners want to see published. Herbert J. Gans, another sociologist, sat in on meetings between editors and reporters at major
news media outlets in concluding in his classic 1979 book Deciding What’s News that the end product is the result of a “tug of war” between the two camps. Yet even these internal struggles over the news can be the least of the influences on what reaches the public. The classic book Mediating the Message, which is perhaps the most exhaustive compendium of influences on news content, sees five levels of sway. External influences, including government and public relations, can be considerable. U.S.
, I would argue that the influence of government is paramount. One only has to look at the taming of the country’s news media by the 2009 Public Emergency Regulation and the 2010 Media Decree to see how completely the heavy hand of the dictatorship has muted any criticism of itself. As Narsey points out, cutting off millions of dollars in government advertising to the Fiji Times over the years and diverting it instead to the rival Fiji Sun has no doubt had something to do with how enthusiastic a government booster the Sun has become. The Times, on the other hand, has been threatened with a $500,000 fine for contempt of court over a soccer story it reprinted from a New Zealand newspaper that mentioned peripherally the lack of rule of law in Fiji. (This is not, as David Robie incorrectly asserts, an action taken under the Media Decree.) The Times has also been the subject of endless complaints by the government under the Media Decree, which provides fines of up to $100,000. Fiji
Narsey errs in urging the Media Authority to develop a code of ethics for media owners, publishers, editors and journalists. The Media Decree already includes a detailed code of ethics and practice. In fact, it is the exact same code that was adopted by the erstwhile Media Council, except that it adds fines and even possible prison sentences for violating its provisions. The problem with
’s news media is not the lack of a code of ethics but instead the harsh penalties in the Media Decree, which encourage timidity by journalists, and the lack of transparency by the Media Authority. Professor Narsey rightly criticizes Professor Subramani, head of the Authority, for failing to clarify anything. Fiji
Why is it that despite three years of controversy over media censorship, Professor Subramani is not to be seen or heard? Subramani certainly has not come to the defense of the vulnerable journalists and editors who have been at the total mercy of the Regime, and who are being made scapegoats for the failings of the media owners.
Subramani, who teaches literature at
, has been uncharitably called “Fiji’s Goebbels” by Oxford-based academic Victor Lal, for taking on the job as the regime’s “chief censor.” Narsey, who is the previous USP academic forced out by the regime for daring to question its initiatives, has been critical of Subramani’s lack of transparency before. Subramani has promised to lift the lid on the workings of the Media Authority, but to date very little information has been forthcoming, despite a requirement in the decree that its rulings be made public. Subramani’s 2010 promise that the Media Authority would work with journalists to navigate the Media Decree makes this lack of transparency curious indeed. Fiji National University
Subramani told FBC News the authority would be proactive in working with the media, and constructively help support the development of quality media services. It would also interpret the provisions in the media decree.
This suggests that Subramani may wish to reveal the business of the Media Authority but has been prevented from doing so by the regime, which is notorious for its abhorrence of transparency. The dictatorship’s desire to micromanage everything in
makes its promise that democracy is on its way very difficult to believe. Far from the journalists or even media owners, it is the dictatorship that deserves the bulk of the blame for the sad state of Fiji ’s media. Fiji